Newcastle 1898Map Description Plan of Newcastle from the Royal Atlas 1898
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This plan of Newcastle is from “The Royal Atlas of England and Wales” produced by J.G.Bartholomew for George Newnes Ltd in 1898. The descriptive text that follows is compiled from the “Gazetteer of the British Isles" published by J.G. Bartholomew in 1904.
Newcastle – City and seaport with railway stations, Central and New Bridge, N.E.R., and numerous suburban stations. Location: Northumberland, on the river Tyne, 10 miles from its mouth, 124 ½ miles SE. of Edinburgh and 268 ½ miles N. of London by rail. Population 215,328. Market days, Tuesday and Saturday. Newcastle was originally called Pons Ælii, from a bridge erected (120) by the Emperor Hadrian; its modern name originated from a fortress built (1080) by Robert Curthose, son of William the Conqueror. It was an important strategic key during the old border feuds between England and Scotland. Modern Newcastle, through the rich mineral products of the neighbourhood, and the industrial genius and activity of the inhabitants, has attained a first position among the great centres of British business enterprise. Being in the midst of one of the largest coalfields in England, it exports immense quantities of that commodity. Important industries are shipbuilding, the manufacture of locomotive and marine engines, ordnance and tools. The port has very extensive traffic. For upwards of 10 miles, both banks of the river are lined with quays, shipbuilding yards, and factories. The famous High Level Bridge (1846-50) of Robert Stephenson has an extreme length of 1375 ft.; the upper part, 112 ft. above high water, is used by the railway, beneath which runs the roadway. The Swing Bridge (opened 1876), constructed by Sir W. Armstrong, is one of the largest of the kind in the world, and allows free navigation of the river. The central railway station and the general market are remarkable for their commodiousness. Other public buildings include the Exchange, Market, Public Library, and Natural History Museum. There are several hospitals, infirmaries and charitable institutions. The school system both for elementary and secondary pupils is excellent; special institutions are an institute of mining, a college of medicine, and a college of physical sciences. A bishopric was founded for Newcastle in 1882, and on the 13th June that year the place was created a city.